Print bookPrint book

Handbook of Cultural and Heritage Management

This is a test course to substitute the existing course

Site: DEN-CuPID Educational Platform
Enter: DEN-CuPID Educational Platform
Book: Handbook of Cultural and Heritage Management
Printed by:
Date: Monday, 8 August 2022, 8:31 PM

Table of contents


The present Handbook is the result of collective work of the partners and mentors of the Erasmus+ project Digital Educational Network for Cultural Projects’ Implementation and Direction. It aims at providing  general guidelines as well as  some in-depth knowledge on issues  of Cultural and Heritage Management for people professionally engaged with Cultural and  Heritage  projects who do not possess a firm educational background in these fields. When drafting this handbook, the authors’ team had in mind mostly municipal employees, entrepreneurs in the field of culture and tourism and members of small, local cultural organizations. It can be browsed individually or, ideally, combined with the free e-learning course provided in the DEN CuPID platform.

We hope that the Handbook will match the expectations of the target audience, particularly of the trainees of the DEN CuPID project. The team of authors welcome any suggestions and remarks in order to improve it in further editions.


Basic precepts of Cultural and Heritage management

2.1. What is Cultural Management?

Cultural management is the efficient administration and enhancement of cultural organizations, entities and projects. Along with cultural policies, these notions emerged due to the increasing impact of economy on all aspects of life (hence also on culture) in the post-world war II period and particularly within the past few decades. Both creative arts and heritage can fall under this general umbrella-notion. For the purposes of the DEN CuPID project we will focus primarily on the heritage aspects, always in their cultural dimension, and on the common precepts transcending management of both, such as efficiency, sustainability, skills, specialization, budgeting etc.

2.2. What is Cultural Heritage Management?

Defining Heritage Management

Heritage Management is a field that engages with the identification, excavation, recording, documentation, protection, conservation, restoration, interpretation, enhancement and promotion, presentation, dissemination of cultural heritage for the sake of present and future generations. (ICAHM Charter 1990; Elia & Ostovich, 2011).

The field emerged in the 1970s as a response to the growing need for professionalization, efficient protection and presentation of cultural heritage and opening up to the public. Yet, immediately after World War II and even before, museums, cultural organisations and academics got inspired by the field of management and marketing to address their needs. Nowadays, organizations and institutions, public or private, local, regional, national or international are borrowing ideas from the disciplines of finance, management and

marketing and endeavour to establish them in a very competitive world, yet without losing contact with the content of culture and heritage.

Defining Cultural Heritage

Defining Cultural Heritage is a difficult task. Through the decades the concept has become more and more inclusive and broad. Nowadays, the term cultural heritage includes not only tangible resources, but also intangible. Intangible heritage (UNESCO 2003

) is about “traditions or living expressions inherited from our ancestors and passed on to our descendants, such as oral traditions, performing arts, social practices, rituals, festive events, knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe or the knowledge and skills to produce traditional crafts”. Tangible heritage encompasses immovable cultural heritage such as monuments, sites and buildings (UNESCO 1972), as well as movable cultural goods (such as objects, collections etc) and underwater cultural resources. To the current definition of cultural heritage landscapes and values have been added reminding us that the term evolves hand in hand with the needs of society.

2.3. Scope and aims

Why is the efficient management of cultural projects and cultural heritage important?

Cultural projects are usually challenging endeavours: they require a great deal of planning, local support and inspiration whereas they cannot guarantee generation of income. There are many cases of “successful” projects which were however financially difficult to support, as well as cases of altogether unsuccessful events and projects which failed because of maladjustment to the current reality. 

Cultural heritage, on the other hand, is a “non renewable” and “fragile” resource, a source of local or/and national pride and an asset whose importance can at time exceed national borders and can contribute to local and regional development. Its safeguarding for future generations is a matter of public concern.  In the 21st century limitation of financial resources, increase of recognised and protected heritage assets and the pressure for democratization of culture and the development of a sense of ownership are factors which led to the need of using more effective tools in order to achieve more with less.

Among the aims of Cultural Heritage Management is the effective protection of cultural heritage, its documentation, study, maintenance (restoration, conservation, reconstruction etc), but also its presentation to the public for whose sake it is safeguarded by specialists and academics. Furthermore, nowadays the necessity of financial viability of heritage assets and cultural projects in general imposes aspects such as sustainability and feasibility, which are incorporated in the general notion of “management”.

The following points will help us understand the importance of the notion of “management” in cultural projects and heritage protection and enhancement:

●        Efficiency: is a key word when it comes to cultural and heritage management. Cultural heritage management helps practitioners in taking informed decisions, plan adequately, make the most of all resources and set up sustainable projects. Tools such as marketing plans, business plans, strategic plans, swot analysis (see below), project management software (see below) allow us to do our work more efficiently.

At the heart of efficient heritage management lie legal frameworks. Regional, national and international laws provide the framework of protection and guide those involved in the management of and promotion of cultural heritage in achieving their goals. Every heritage manager or person involved in heritage management projects should first examine existing legislations.

●        Assessment:  An important parameter in the successful design and implementation of cultural projects is their constant evaluation. Evaluation of projects should take place at all phases from their inception to their completion. Heritage managers also engage in the assessment of the values of cultural heritage, and activities of cultural mapping in an effort to get acquainted with the assets of an area and the importance of cultural heritage, before proceeding with their management and promotion.

●        Sustainability: In recent years the concept of sustainability dominates discussion in the cultural and heritage sectors and guides decisions taken by respective managers. Whether we talk about the sustainability of cultural heritage or the role of culture as the fourth pillar of sustainable development, it is all about thinking about the future.

        Public Engagement: Every cultural and heritage management project in order to be considered successful has to have a positive impact on local communities and to be well received by the public.  Raising awareness, reaching out for the public, engaging local communities in planning and decision making, consulting with the public should be activities embedded in all cultural and heritage projects.


One has to keep in mind that when management ideas are applied in the cultural and heritage sector, profit is not the end, but a means to achieve cultural sustainability. Therefore, many of the management/marketing tools presented in this textbook are tailored to the needs of non  profit cultural organisations whose income is not fixed and often their funding comes from the state or from donations.


2.4. Skills needed – skills involved

The field of cultural and heritage management is continuously evolving. Therefore the skills of the professionals of the field have to cover a wide range of disciplines related both to traditional and emerging professions. The main aim of this chapter is to group and list firstly where cultural heritage projects take place and which are the main professional profiles and specializations. Subsequently they are grouped in four public oriented clusters applicable in all professions and fields. In conclusion there are some observations on the overall field of cultural heritage professions.


Main working environments:

●        Museums and Galleries

●        Archaeological sites

●        Folklore sites

●        Monuments

●        Libraries and archives

●        Historic Sites

●        Religious sites

●        Local cultural and/or historical associations

●        Municipalities

●        Non-profit cultural organizations


●        The above list of working areas/spaces is indicative, but not exhaustive as different geographical and cultural contexts have their own cultural and heritage institutions and organizations.

●        Every country has its own legislative framework related to cultural heritage. This means that laws affect/ can affect the foundation of an institution or initiative, the hiring procedure of experts, the involvement or not of volunteers, etc.


Main Fields of Expertise


·         Archaeology. In different countries you find different specializations of Archaeologists according to the prevalent historic eras of the region. In Greece for example one can be specialized in Prehistorical, Classical, Byzantine Archaeology or Contemporary History and/or more specialized or subfields like Underwater Archaeology. Furthermore within the last few decades new subfields have emerged such as Public, Industrial, Landscape, Experimental and Digital Archaeology.

N.B. In the USA one can find the studies and profession of Archaeology under the wider field of Anthropology, while in Europe it is a discipline on its own.

●        Architecture/ Engineering. Architects and Civil Engineers working on Heritage projects get their specializations in their postgraduate studies mainly related to conservation and restoration but also to museum studies (museum planning) and landscape architecture when it comes to archaeological sites. In most of the EU countries for working on conservation or anastylosis you need a recognized postgraduate qualification on Conservation.

●        Conservation. Conservators work on safeguarding all materials of tangible cultural heritage.   Their specializations are mainly discerned according to materials, like stones, wood, plaster, ceramic, metals, textiles, paper, canvas et. al. They can work either on preventive conservation, remedial conservation or restoration as defined by ICOM-CC 15th Triennial Conference held in New Delhi in September 2008.

●        History and Art History. Historians and Art historians are involved in different institutions and with different duties from archives to municipalities or private foundations and very often work as museum curators or museologists and collection managers.  

●        Creative Industries. Cultural projects as well as heritage enhancement often involve specialists from the creative industries’ sector (photographers, video and film specialists, scriptwriters, publicity specialists, music specialists or composers, graphic artists etc). As evident from many EU funding prerogatives there is a tendency nowadays to combine heritage projects and creative industries’ projects for an integrated cultural approach.

●        Management/Administration/Finances. Over the last decades it has been recognized that for successful management and administration of cultural and heritage working areas it is not enough to gain practical experience on the field. Therefore specialized university curricula have been developed both in undergraduate and postgraduate level, which provide training on heritage management (see appendix B). Also many countries started recognizing the “heritage manager” as a separate profession.

●        IT. With the explosion of the digital era, new professions related to digitalization of heritage assets, of the cultural organizations themselves, as well as with the enhancement of the visitors’ experience have emerged. Examples of IT experts related to heritage can be data analysts, program designers, 3D modellers, web marketeers, etc.

●        Education. Specialized personnel that designs audience development and engagement programmes for different kind of audiences is necessary particularly in big organizations and major projects and can guarantee, partly, a project’s sustainability as new visitors will keep coming for successful educational programmes. Furthermore, educational programmes addressed to children build on the sensitization of future citizens.

Most of the heritage related professions are recognized on a national or academic standard. For an overview and comparison of the competent bodies in each member country and by each member organisation, see

Overall Tendencies/Needs:

●        Strong need for interdisciplinarity and collaboration.

●        Strong need for continuous training and skills improvement.

●        Hands-on experience on the field is essential for applying theory in practice.



Example: Skills of cultural professionals divided in clusters for Collection Management

Cultural and and heritage managers should act in the public interest. Therefore, even when performing a technical work, they should respect the following “four main clusters” [modified from the “The Collections Management Competency Framework” (2016)].

●        Audience Focus. Starting from people’s needs and areas of interest programmes should engage the public reflecting at the same time the authority, truthfulness, and efficiency of any cultural institution.

●        Technical knowledge and practice. As for the different skills of each profession, it is important to ensure good practices and use current standards in any project as they are defined by national norms and European charts and codes of Ethics.

●        Communication. Creating communication and comprehension channels both for the working teams and the audience/user.

●        Contexts. Recognizing one’s own personal and professional responsibility for the ethical, legal and organizational aspects of any undertaken activity.

The Collections Management Competency Framework - defines the collections management skills and behaviours which a museum needs to develop, manage and sustain collections so that they can be used by the public.



The notion of “management” in cultural and heritage-related projects has become a necessity due to the fragility of cultural heritage, the high costs of cultural events and heritage asset maintenance, the lack or restriction of public funds and the requirements for high performance and professional treatment. Cultural and heritage management projects nowadays require interdisciplinary collaboration, expertise, good planning and a community-oriented (and often community-driven) incentive.



2.5. References

Cleere, H. (2000), Archaeological Heritage Management in the Modern World, London.

Elia, R., Ostovich, M.E. (2011), Heritage Management, OUP, published on-line

Hall, M. and McArthur, S. (1998), Integrated Heritage Management, London

McManamon, F.P., Hatton,  A. (eds.) 2000. Cultural resource management in contemporary society: Perspectives on managing and presenting the past. One World Archaeology 33. London: Routledge.


Contribution of Culture and Heritage to sustainable local development

3.1. Culture and Heritage as a lever of development for local communities

Culture and Heritage as a lever of development for local communities

3.2. Authenticity and “ownership”

Culture and Heritage are levers for local development in more than one ways:

Inwards: Appreciation of culture and local heritage by people creates a substratum of mutual understanding, sense of “ownership” and social coherence; education, collaboration and promotion of ideas are easier on such substratum than in societies hostile to their own cultural roots.

Outwards: Culture and Heritage are intrinsically linked to tourism, promotion of local products, protection of local resources towards external threats. As we will see below, well-embedded cultural values can lead to profitable synergies and sustainable development rather than exploitation of resources by external factors and investors, which will eventually lead local societies to alienation or economic  decay. 

Two notions are very important when we talk about heritage, culture and sustainability. The first is authenticity. The quest for authenticity transcends all heritage preservation projects, regarding both tangible and intangible heritage. It also affects aspects of local culture such as gastronomy, folk art, rituals etc., particularly when these are exposed to tourism. Contrary to what happened in previous decades, when heritage managers and tour operators interpreted the past through the eyes of the visitors, i.e. compromised veracity  in order to be compatible with visitors’ expectations, nowadays the trend is to build on authentic traces of the past, on authentic specimens of  a culture. This has a double effect: on the one hand visitors (who are now exposed to lots of information through technology and the general raise in educational standards) don’t feel deceived and on the other hand heritage itself remains as intact and uncompromised as possible. Building strong community ties based on local heritage and culture is the only secure way to preserve local identity and thus develop a region in a sustainable way, avoiding alienation.

Respect for authenticity leads to the second notion, namely that of the sense of “ownership”, experienced by the locals who feel that they are the legal heirs of their own tradition and heritage, those who have the right and the obligation to carry it forward, to maintain it and even to alter it but through a natural process of evolution and not in order to make it more “saleable”.

Authenticity: the Covered Market example


In order to better understand the notion of authenticity, think of a traditional covered market, so common in many countries. During a rehabilitation project, the premises are preserved and restored. However, in some cases after the restoration the leading authority/company decides to lease the shops to international brands or chain stores, whereas in other cases the shops maintain their local flavour, selling anything from foodstuff to handicrafts, tools, hardware etc. In the second case authenticity is preserved, in the first one not. The economic model adopted is completely different.


3.3. Culture and Tourism: an inextricable bond

‘As a force for social change, tourism has had an impact of the same order as the industrial revolution. In less than three decades, tourism has transformed the way the world looks and works.’ (Sudjic, D., 1993: 2). Travel & Tourism is currently one of the world's largest industries, employing more than 235 million people worldwide and generating some 9.2% of global GDP. There are many reasons why people travel, and culture is definitely high up the list. People travel to visit museums and sites, to go to festivals, to enjoy local traditions, to experience other cultures. As Boniface (1995) used to say: “… any tourism […] would have little power of attraction without the presence of some alien culture, of differentness. Without this, what would be the point of leaving home?”

Cultural Tourism

Cultural Tourism is a definition used to discern quality- and authenticity-oriented touristic activities from the “mass” tourism developed mainly in the 1970s, which aimed at providing tourists with standardized, easy and presumably pleasant leisure activities in cheap prices.

Nowadays “cultural” tourism is even further specialized: archaeological tourism, art tourism, festival tourism etc. On the other hand, even “mass” tourism includes culture-oriented activities: organized excursions, for example, always involve one or two visits to museums and sites in between eating, shopping and sunbathing. Therefore the relation between culture, heritage  and tourism is an open, ever-changing one.

Impact of cultural tourism        

 Cultural tourism is always considered as a less destructive, more positive and environmental-friendly kind of tourism, which, furthermore, can become more profitable, from the point of view of sustainability, to the local economies. It offers incentives for:

o   Preserving the traditional or ancient built environment

o   Preserving traditional jobs and crafts

o   Improving the quality of services

o   Raising the educational and cultural level of the region as the locals re-appreciate their own heritage and culture

o    Maintaining a balance between tourism and local ways of life, as authenticity is a quest for cultural tourists.

o   Developing all-year round tourism

o   Developing a larger segment of jobs with stronger interaction to each other

o   Developing local entrepreneurship and thus keeping the income within the community


With the motto “See the land, meet the people”, one of the leaders in cultural tourism, “Studiosus Reisen” in Germany has produced several types of travel: Language-learning traveling; Focus on everyday life; Archaeological travels; Music and festivals. They were the leaders in what we call “experiential travels”, a kind of advanced cultural tourism where visitors participate in activities related to everyday life reflecting aspects of a country’s culture.

Fig 1: The old and the new look of shops on the traditional flea market at Hephaestou Street, Monastiraki, Athens


Revivals and events: urban festivals, amusement parks, cultural and sporting activities

Festivals and events are intrinsically linked both to tourism and to successful heritage management –let alone creative industries. Learning to plan them, manage them and turn them into profitable yet sustainable tools for local development is a bet to be won by local societies and authorities.

·         Historic revivals: Festivals related to historic events and places involving re-enactments, parades, and theatrical plays always stir the interest of the broader public. However, they have to be planned very carefully, as there is a very thin line dividing authenticity from kitsch. A specialised team of experts needs to be in charge and the local population needs to be involved, so that the whole endeavour emanates authenticity.

Fig 2: The parade in honour of Emperor Charles V (Belgium) and the Armata (burning of the Ottoman Fleet) in Spetses, Greece, are examples of successful re-enactments, embraced by the locals.


·         Festivals and fairs: Festivals and fair have always been major attractions for strangers and foreigners and a way to communicate, barter, exchange ideas, even mingle with people outside the community. Most modern cities hold their own festivals, usually involved with art and culture, or their fairs for commercial and informative reasons. From the Venice carnival to the Frankfurt book fair and the Kalamata dance festival each one constitutes  a major yearly event, which not only affects local economy but also peoples’ lives. However, although all these events can be profitable to the local economies, they have to be planned and budgeted carefully in order not to bring financial loss to the organizing authorities.



 Alternative tourism

Cultural tourism sometimes falls within the broader category of tourism called alternative tourism. Within the same category are listed various other kinds of tourism related to nature and related activities, such as trekking, mountaineering, rafting, scuba-diving, sailing, etc. Tour operators (particularly small companies focusing on experiential tourism) attempt to create environmental-friendly, culturally rich and sustainable touristic experiences for visitors who want to spend their leisure time in an active, energetic manner rather than relaxing.

The entire set of an alternative touristic experience involved staying in small, “boutique” hotels, agrotouristic farms or even ordinary people’s homes (hence the success of Airbnb), tasting local cuisine, spending time in outdoors activities, using local transportation media or moving on foot/bicycle/motorcycle and contacting locals as much as possible, even participating at handcraft activities.

Fig. 3: In alternative tourism luxury, all-inclusive hotel complexes are substituted by small boutique hotels in traditional buildings.


Local Economy and Cultural Tourism

Sustainable local economy means “running a business, an organization, or a government in such a way that it doesn’t destroy the resources – natural, cultural, or economic – on which it depends” (Bien, 2006). In recent years, discussion encompasses cultural tourism’s role in achieving sustainable development.

The sustainability aspects of cultural tourism which concern the local community include:

-strengthening the sense of ownership and identity

- giving opportunities for a better livelihood if tourism businesses are run by locals as profits stay within the  local communities.

- Upgrading the educational and training standards of the locals in order not only to acquire competence and skill for participating in heritage conservation and heritage tourism, but also in order to respect  local intellectual property, and to learn the “know-how” of heritage as tourism resource.

In this process it is the local community which determines the sufficient development of the area, the competitiveness and the higher standard.

At this point it is noteworthy the importance of designing and implementing a local tourism policy that will protect the local resources and ensure the sustainability and growth of the local tourism development.


What are the positive and negative effects of cultural tourism on local economy?

o   Creating public private partnerships (PPPs)

o   Local authorities: ensure sustainable development of communities through programmes. They are also more skilful in recognising local cultural resources

o   Stakeholders: All the identified stakeholders coming from business sector, government, universities, scientific research, civil society, should have a balanced quota characterized by  competitiveness as well as collaboration.

o   The difficult part is to coordinate these PPPs due to the different type of the partners; setting a commonly accepted framework and rules, is essential for a successful partnership. In this process standardized policies are to be avoided and new models should be sought out.

o   This final goal should be characterised by attractive investments and business opportunities taking always into consideration short, medium and long term investment turnover.

Identification of the 4 axes for a sustainable local development: local firms, labour skills, inward investment, infrastructure, (Pedrana, 2013; Robinson, 2016)

Ø  Local firms: enhancement of investments and enforcement of the local industry can be achieved when local firms attract other investments and create synergies. The effects may be direct or indirect depending on the level of involvement in tourism industry.

Ø  Labour skills: ensuring that education is connected to market needs and provides the necessary skills to the local labour force.

Ø  Inward investment & infrastructure: improvement to the  accessibility and infrastructure of the local area is important in order to support the investments and the development of the area. (Pedrana, 2013).

Ø  Education: the educational level of the people involved in the tourist sector might also attract tourists and enable locals in offering better services.

After that, what?

Here are some ideas based on worldwide examples of new approaches in tourism. They are all based on a combination of leisure, co-operation of all kind of stakeholders (tourism service providers, local community, cultural managers) and peer-to-peer exchanges in order to provide unique and customised experiences (OECD, 2016):

➢      Tourism product within the community: Create innovative tourist products at community level offered to tourists  seeking for authentic experiences.  

➢      Dining, transportation, travel planning and accommodation. Based on the model of sharing economy the idea is to provide to tourists a true experience of the everyday life of the local community.

o   Dinners prepared from locals services in the house,

o   moving from one place to another using the local vehicles,

o   organise travels enhanced with many local activities (farming, fishing etc)

o   staying in a place and living with the local style.


3.4. Branding and Marketing

Branding and Marketing are two notions often mixed in everyday language. However, this is wrong. Branding is the enhancement of specific characteristics of a place/product in order to shape its particular identity, whereas marketing is the use of elements and techniques in order to achieve economic goals (mainly to attract visitors or “sell” local branding to a broader audience). For both definitions see


Regional/local identity and its contribution to regional branding

The identity of a region or any wider local community is shaped by the set of features, physical, cultural and historical, which are perceived as distinguishing for that region or area. Landscape, archaeological and historical monuments (as part of the tangible heritage) and landmarks constitute an essential part of this set of features. On an intangible level, customs and rites, dialects, memories, social practices, traditional arts and crafts, music, gastronomy etc constitute the essential elements of the local identity fabric.

Local/regional identity as part of strategies for sustainable development on a local level is a trend closely interrelated with the broader developments of urban expansion and institutional strengthening of regions. In the context of globalization, the effect of “uniformization” has led to the emergence of a counterbalancing trend: that of localization. Regions and urban areas become the centres of a localized approach to economic and socio-politic life, and local identity (regional or urban) becomes the lever for political developments, such as the recent referendums for autonomy in Scotland or Catalunia.

On an economic level, marketing a city or a wider region has underwent important changes, from a simple place advertisement or promotion to an integrated local/regional branding procedure. The latter aims at the production and distribution of an entire area or region “image” (Kavaratzis and Ashworth, 2008). The outcome of the region branding procedure is the reconfiguration of a strong place identity, acknowledged by the target groups, both the local communities and the outsiders/visitors.

Branding local cultural identity

Regional/local branding that is based upon culture has gained ground, enhanced by the fact that a cultural image contributes to touristic growth. However, a balance has to be stricken always between maintaining cultural integrity and economic growth based on tourism. For example, “aggressive” cultural policies and massive cultural projects, such as the foundation of a Guggenheim museum branch in Bilbao (known as the “Bilbao effect”) can have magnifying results on tourism, but have nothing to do with local identities. The experience from such an “aggressive” region branding tactics have led to the enhancement of participatory planning procedures and bottom-up processes, emphasizing primarily on social capital.

Creating synergies

This social capital, comprising a civic engagement but also a strong institutional dimension, is manifested in the capacity of forging effective synergies on a local level, as individuals, groups, organizations and institutions engage in networks, cooperate, employ and use social relations for a common purpose and multilateral benefit (Tisenkopfs et al., 2008). In this perspective, local/regional identity becomes essential for enabling local synergies through the process of internal branding of a local area, be it rural or urban; at the same time, this process fosters trust and cooperation, eventually leading to a renewed and re-interpreted sense of shared identity (Aitken and Campello, 2011).


Cultural Tourism Marketing

Local/regional branding is an important tool for attaining sustainable local development, mostly through cultural tourism. However, it needs to be enhanced through effective communication and systematic marketing. Here are some proposals where the implementation of marketing strategies may bring positive results to promoting and enhancing local sustainability: 

➢      Targeted and coordinated marketing: development of itineraries that link local areas.

➢      Collaboration between authorities and entrepreneurs: New ideas should be embraced especially those that involve traditional services

➢      Promotion of sustainable tourism through national strategies: The idea of making tourism for profit has passed away. Following new trends and guidelines (Rio+20[AK1] ), tourism is important to follow sustainability principles. Training and the identification of good practices for tourism businesses are among the priorities.

➢      Economizing on marketing means

➢      Finding the right target group(s). Whether is a source market or niche, it is important to be carefully selected so as to unlock the potential and the added values. (OECD, 2016)

➢      Using technology for marketing purposes



Cultural and alternative tourism build on a region’s cultural and natural endowment. Key notions for successful implementation of these kinds of tourism are those of authenticity and ownership of local identities. Regional and local branding helps preserve and enhance these identities; in some cases it also helps build new identities, as cultural events and organizations may become emblematic in the course of a community’s life. Cultural branding should make use of local cultural identities and their tangible and intangible elements in order to achieve local synergies and a sound social fabric. In order to achieve financial goals it should also be combined with effective marketing.



3.5. References

·         Aitken, R. and Campelo, A., (2011). “The four Rs of place branding”, Journal of Marketing. Management 27 (nos 9/10), pp. 913-33

·         Boniface, P. (1995), Managing Quality Cultural Tourism, London

·         Cox, K., (1995). “Globalization, competition and the politics of local economic development.” Urban Studies 32(2), pp. 213-224.

·         Elia, R., Ostovich, M. E., (2011).  “Heritage Management”, obo.  (Retrieved 20 Sep. 2017).

·         Evans, G., (2003). “Hard-branding the cultural city - from Prado to Prada.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 27(2), pp. 417-440.

·         Kalandides, A., (2012). “Place branding and place identity. An integrated approach”, Tafter Journal, 43 (1). Available at: <> (Accessed June 2017).

·         Kavaratzis, M., (2004). “From city marketing to city branding: towards a theoretical framework for developing city brands”, Place Branding 1 (1), pp. 58-73.

·         Kavaratzis, M., (2005). “Branding the city through culture and entertainment” Aesop. Available at: <> (Accessed May 2017).

·         Kavaratzis, M. and Ashworth, G.J., (2005). “Partners in coffeeshops, canals and commerce: Marketing the city of Amsterdam”, Cities 24 (1), pp. 16-25.

·         Kavaratzis, M. and Ashworth, G.J., (2008). “Place marketing: how did we get here and where are we going?”, Journal of Place Management and Development 1 (2), pp. 150-165.

·         Kunzmann, K.R., (2004). “Culture, Creativity and Spatial Planning”, Town Planning Review 75 (4), pp. 383-404.

·         Messely et al., 2009: Messely, L., Dessein, J. and Lauwers, L., “Branding Regional Identity as a Driver for Rural Development”, Paper prepared for presentation at the 113th EAAE Seminar The role of knowledge, innovation and human capital in multifunctional agriculture and territorial rural development (Belgrade, Dec. 9-11, 2009). Available at:

<> (Accessed May 2017).

·         OECD, 2016. Tourism Trends and Policies 2016, Highlights, s.l.: OECD.

·         Paasi, A., (2002), “Bounded spaces in the mobile world: Deconstructing ‘Regional identity’”, Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 93 (2), pp. 137–148.

·         Peck, J., (2005). “Struggling with the Creative Class”, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 29 (4), pp. 740-770.

·         Peck, J., (2012). “Recreative City: Amsterdam, Vehicular Ideas and the Adaptive Spaces of Creativity Policy”, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 36 (3), pp. 462-485.

·         Pedrana, M., (2013). Local Economic Development Policies and Tourism. An approach to sustainability and culture. Regional Science Inquiry Journal, Vol. V, (1), pp. 91-99.

·         Pratt, A., (2011). “The Cultural Contradictions of the Creative City”, City, Culture and Society 2 (3), pp. 123-130.

·         Raagmaa, G. (2001), “Regional identity and social capital in regional economic development and planning”, ERSA conference papers, European Regional Science Association. Available at: <> (Accessed June 2017).

·         Robinson M., D. D. P. (2016), Tourism, Culture and Sustainable Development, s.l.: Unesco.

·         Slusariuc C.C., Nedelea A.-., n.d. “The Role of Cultural Tourism in Socio-Economic Regeneration of Communities” Journal of Tourism-Studies and research in tourism, [Issue 16], pp. 39-42.

·         Sudjic,D. (1993), The 100 Mile City, London:Harcourt

Tisenkopfs et al. (2008): Tisenkopfs, T., Lace, I. and Mierina, I. (2008) “Social Capital”, in: Van der Ploeg, J.D. and Marsden, T. (eds.), Unfolding webs, the dynamics of regional rural development (Assen: Van Gorcum), pp. 87-110.


National and International legislation on Cultural Heritage Management

4.1. National legislation principles regarding heritage and culture

In order to better function locally and to collaborate transnationally, it is essential to have a thorough idea of culture-related legislation in our own country as well as a brief idea of the legislative framework in other countries. Here you can find some basic information about heritage management in three major EU countries, as they often act as “exponents” of ideas and models of cultural and heritage management, as well as a more detailed one about DEN-CuPID partner countries.


Major EU countries: France, Germany and the UK



The French system of cultural heritage management is centralized and controlled by the Ministry of Culture. Research, conservation and management of monuments has to be approved by it. However, there are also decentralized services. All three stakeholders (i.e. the state authorities, local authorities and specialized researchers) work together on management plans and cultural policies. The main sectors are divided as following: a) cultural heritage, b) artistic creation, c)media and creative industries, d)accessible culture, e) transversal policies and f) languages. Regarding heritage, the Ministry has four main directories (Bureaux), namely those dealing with: a) Archives, b) Museums, c) Architecture, d) Tangible and Intangible Cultural Heritage. The latter section is responsible for all historic monuments and archaeological sites.

All management aspects of cultural heritage assets are regulated by the “Heritage Law” (Code du Patrimoine), last modified in July 2017. (Code du Patrimoine, 2017).

A major problem in France regarding material heritage is the large amount of privately owned historic buildings. As their maintenance become unaffordable to the owners, the state is trying to  find ways to support them find ways of sustainable existence for their properties.


Authorities, organizations

Ministère de la Culture:

Section Patrimoine:

Centre des Monuments Nationaux:

Cité de l’Architecture et du Patrimoine:

Fondation du Patrimoine:

Legislative documents

Code du Patrimoine, 2017:




Germany is a federal state and this shapes and defines its legislation and policies on heritage and culture. Besides some state authorities and general principles valid on a national level, each member of the confederation has its own laws and criteria for establishing heritage protection and cultural activities. The supreme authority is the Federal Ministry of Culture. A national service of monuments (Landesdenkmalamt) offers advice regarding heritage management even to private owners. A National Committee for the Protection of Monuments (Deutsches Nationalkomitee für Denkmalschutz) has been active for the past 40 years as an intermediary between state and private organizations, including church authorities, institutions, associations, etc., in order to propagate best practices, to educate the public and to establish actions for raising public awareness. Large part of heritage and cultural management in Germany lies with the municipal authorities, which emphasize the need for involvement of all stakeholders, as cultural assets are strongly considered as belonging to all.

The basic guidelines of heritage management in Germany, elaborated by the central government, are conservative in principle, aiming at maintaining authenticity and at emphasizing culture and heritage as a public commodity. 


Authorities and Organizations

Deutsches Nationalkomitee für Denkmalschutz:

Detailed list of regional heritage authorities:

Initiative Kultur- und Kreativwirtschaft:



United Kingdom

Although the forthcoming Brexit will take the UK out of the sphere of the EU, it is not possible not to examine the cultural and heritage policies of this country, mainly because, at an academic level at least, it still constitutes a great pool of ideas, regulations, practices and policies, which affect, partly, those of other countries. The Department of Digital, Culture, Media and Sport is the ministry responsible for all cultural activities, including large part of heritage. However some activities on local heritage are regulated also by the Department for Communities and Local Government. The main authority for Cultural Heritage Management in the UK is the organization English Heritage. All decisions and administrative measures are to be found on-line at [last accessed 13/9/2016]. English Heritage functions as an “Institutional state counselling organization”; since 2010 only 2/3 of its functional costs are covered by the state budget and in 2014 it was divided in two parts: a) Historic England which is responsible for the technical part of management, i.e. conservation and restoration, and which has now become part of the Ministry of Public Works, and b) English Heritage, which is responsible for enhancement, which has to become economically viable and independent by the end of 2019. The English Heritage is responsible for drafting the National Heritage Protection Plan, a general plan for the protection of all heritage assets (2012). Almost simultaneously was issued also the Asset Management Plan, focusing on the effective and viable economic management of tangible heritage assets. Apart from the English Heritage there are also regional organizations (Historic Scotland, Historic Wales, Historic N. Ireland), with a thought to deliver to them full control over their local assets.

In general, British cultural policies are more oriented towards the private sector, be it in the field of management or in that of funding. The major feature of British cultural management is involvement of all stakeholders through public consultations on legislative measures and plans. Heritage management in particular is based on a liberalist model, aiming at rendering all relevant managing authorities self-sustained and self-governed. The British model is therefore essentially different from, if not opposing to, models of countries such as Italy, Greece, Cyprus, France or Germany. However, as their policies are revised roughly every 5 years, there is always a margin for changing regulations and adjusting to new exigencies.


Authorities and Organizations

Department of Digital, Culture, Media and Sports:

English Heritage:  

Historic England:

Historic Environment Scotland:

Historic Wales:

Historic Northern Ireland:

Legislative documents

National Heritage Protection Plan Framework:  (followed by research 2011-2015)

Asset Management Plan:



DEN-CuPID partner countries



Greece has a centralized system of cultural and heritage management. Cultural issues are mostly regulated by the Ministry of Culture and Sports. It controls the majority of funds destined for cultural activities and heritage preservation. However, Regional Authorities are currently evolving into the second largest pool of funding and project distribution in the field of culture and heritage.

As far as cultural heritage assets are concerned, these are administered by the Ministry’s Regional Services, namely the “Ephorates”. To a lesser extent other ministries, such as the Ministry of Environment and Energy and the Ministry of Tourism, are also involved in parts of the heritage management process. The “archaeological law” 3028/2002 (ΦΕΚ Α΄153) (Κάτσος, 2003, Λένος, 2003) regulates the major issues related to tangible and intangible heritage. The law establishes that all management plans of heritage sites and points of interest need to have as leading part of their stakeholders’ council the local Ephorate of Antiquities or other regional service of the Ministry of Culture. The Ministry is responsible also for updating the List of Protected Monuments and Sites, for composing  the National Archive of Monuments, which runs projects for the digitization of Greek cultural endowment , and for drafting the Archaeological Cadastre, a systematic documentation, classification and digitization of archaeological sites and monuments based on GIS; finally the Archaeological Resources’ Fund, responsible for a vast range of activities, from expropriation of properties of archaeological significance to the production and distribution of archaeological guidebooks, cards and sales’ items for the museum stores of state museums and archaeological sites.

Last but not least, as in other countries, the Church is a major stakeholder of tangible cultural heritage, as many monasteries and churches date from Byzantine or Post-Byzantine times; the ones that are still functioning are under the jurisdiction of church authorities along with that of the Ministry of Culture and Sports.

Greece is considered a “source” country for illegal trafficking of antiquities, hence its management system for its tangible heritage is based on the notion of “protection”. The general approach is therefore essentially a “top down” one, with state, regional or church authorities controlling major part of this heritage.


Authorities, organizations and major stakeholders

Ministry of Culture and Sports:

Ministry of Environment and Energy:

Ministry of Tourism:

National Archive of Monuments:

Permanent List of Monuments and Archaeological Sites:

Archaeological Resources’ Fund:

Legislative Documents

Archaeological Law 3038/2002 (ΦΕΚ Α’ 153)




In Italy culture constitutes the major touristic asset of the country as well as a high identity-building factor for all citizens.  The country is renowned both for its high-end culture, such as Music, Theatre and the Arts and for its heritage, both tangible and intangible. Italian heritage protection has evolved according to the evolution of the law and the more general international circumstances. It is important to remind that Italy counts 53 entries in the World Heritage List of UNESCO, most than any other country in the world. This endowment requires a complex management system. The problem with the overall evolution of Italian law is fragmentation, non-clear distribution of competences between regions and state, and repeated innovations which depend much on ministerial decisions.

The first law about heritage preservation was law 1089/1939 (also known as Bottai’s law) which basically put the basis about the concrete artistic objects to be preserved. It further introduced the concept of public enjoyment of the artistic works as part of public life. This law was revised over the years.

In 2004, was introduced the law n.106, emphasizing the role of management both of public and of private assets and monuments. This law discerns three categories of monuments: strictly public, public which can be assigned to private sector under specific conditions and public which can be assigned to the private sector following a simple process. Plus, the law introduces the concept of immaterial heritage (including also digital items). The general underlying philosophy of law n.106 is about the introduction of the private sector in the management system, against the rigid and non-creative public administration of cultural heritage. In many cases decisions have to be taken by interdisciplinary committees of experts, usually including academics as well.

Recent interventions in terms of cultural heritage laws have been aimed at enhancing free circulation of artistic pieces within European Union, at fully implementing UNESCO international regulations, as well as at better integrating public financing systems with private initiatives. In particular, law 104/2014 (so-called Art Bonus law) deeply innovated the public heritage system, accepting systems of crowd-funding, and consistent forms of support in terms of tax credit to private donations. The Ministry empowered an in-house private platform to implement artistic and cultural projects (, already existing since 2004.


Italian authorities and organizations

Ministero dei beni e delle attività culturali e del turismo: URL:

Istituto Superiore di Restauro di Beni Culturali: URL:

ICCROM:  International Center for the Study on the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property: URL:

Legislative documents

Law 106/2004:

Law 104/2014:




Cultural heritage in Spain is protected under the law 16/1985. Spain is divided in federal states and administrative units and the local governments are mostly responsible for drafting cultural policies. The central Ministry of Culture is responsible for monuments and sites belonging to the “National Cultural Endowment”. Apart from taking care of the monuments and the protection of tangible and intangible cultural heritage, the Ministry is also responsible for fostering international projects and culture and heritage. However, the existence of Cultural Heritage Institutes in each federal district constitutes collaboration and drafting of common policies on a national level sometimes difficult. [, retr. 1/9/2016]

 The measures taken and policies drafted are mainly envisaging economic development and not so much the protection and enhancement of heritage. Spain is one of the countries in which major heritage assets can be privatized, sold and transformed into businesses without legal restrictions. 


Authorities and organizations

Ministerio Español de Educación Cultura y Deporte (in English) /

Legislative Documents

Law 16/1985 on the Spanish Historical Heritage (Official State Bulletin of 29 June)




Bulgaria is centralized regarding its cultural heritage. The Ministry of Culture is the supreme authority dealing both with heritage issues and with creative industries. The Ministry of Education and Science and the Ministry of Regional Development and Public Works are also responsible for some aspects of cultural life. In 2009 was adopted the Act on Cultural Heritage, giving priority to cultural heritage maintenance and protection and obliging local authorities to undertake relevant works of restoration and maintenance. Digitization and effective, sustainable management are also within the agenda of the Act. A major consulting body is the National Council for the Protection of the Monuments of Culture. Archives are entrusted to the care of the National Archives Council.


Authorities and organizations

Ministry of Culture:

Legislative Documents

A synopsis of Bulgarian Laws on heritage and culture can be found here:


International Art Heritage Law

The European University Institute has created a database combining legislative measures in each EU country as well as information on the international regulations that each country abides to. It is therefore a useful tool to consult.


4.2. European Regulations Regarding Culture and Heritage

Apart from National Legislations, the Central European administrative bodies, such as the European Council and the European Commission have adopted measures for the protection of tangible and intangible heritage. The European University Institute has assembled and codified these regulations, conventions and other legislative measures which can be found here:

The most important texts are:

·         European Cultural Convention CETS No.018, Paris, 19 December 1954, in force 5 May 1955

·         Convention on the Protection of Archaeological Heritage (Revised) CETS No.143, Valletta, 16 January 1992, in force 25 May 1995

·         European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, CETS No.148, Strasbourg, 5 November 1992, in force 1 March 1998

·         European Landscape Convention, CETS No.176, Florence 20 October 2000, in force 1 March 2004

·         European Convention for the Protection of the Audiovisual Heritage CETS No.183, Strasbourg 8 November 2001, in force 1 January 2008

·         Framework Convention on the Value of Cultural Heritage for Society, CETS No.199, Faro 27 October 2005, not in force. In order to enforce it, the Council of Europe is welcoming initiatives from Communities, inscribed as Heritage Communities, who attempt to abide to the precepts of the convention and further propagate them. For further details and how to participate with your own community visit

A.     UNESCO precepts on Cultural Heritage Management


The United Nations’ Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is the largest organization worldwide regulating cultural and heritage management issues. It was founded in 1945 at the aftermath of World War II with the vision to “foster dialogue and mutual understanding among peoples of the world”. Promotion of cultural heritage and education are vehicles to this end. Since its foundation, UNESCO has promulgated a series of statutory documents with binding effect to the countries that adopt and ratify them, in order to facilitate preservation and enhancement of tangible and intangible heritage and various  aspects of culture.


1.Tangible Heritage

The 1972 World Heritage Convention


In 1972 during the17th UNESCO’s General Conference in Paris was adopted the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Natural and Cultural Heritage aiming at the protection and conservation of the World Natural and Cultural Heritage as well as at its transmission to future generations. Through key definitions of the Cultural and Natural Heritage and the establishment of the World Heritage Committee, the Convention provides the fundamental framework for the World Heritage processes on national and international level. The Convention was gradually ratified by UNESCO’s member-states.

The World Heritage List


The World Heritage Committee is responsible for the World Heritage List which contains properties of Cultural and Natural Heritage that are considered to be of Outstanding Universal Value.

 According to Article 1 of UNESCO’s 1972 Cultural Convention, as Cultural Heritage are considered: monuments, groups of buildings, sites and cultural landscapes, whereas as Natural Heritage are considered: natural features consisting of physical and biological formations, geological and physiographical formations and natural sites of outstanding beauty or importance.” As Mixed Cultural and Natural Heritage are considered properties that satisfy a part or the whole of the definitions of both natural and cultural heritage.

Up to now (2017) in the World Heritage List have been inscribed 1073 properties (832 Cultural, 206 Natural & 35 Mixed) from 167 State Parties.


Criteria for Inclusion in the WHL

The main guidance for the implementation of the 1972World Heritage Convention is set out in the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention, which is periodically revised to reflect the decisions of the World Heritage Committee. The Operational Guidelines detail the nomination processes and define the criteria for inclusion in the World Heritage List.

For the tangible cultural heritage, nominations should demonstrate that the State Parties have an adequate management plan or a documented management system, ensuring that the value, authenticity and integrity of the property will be preserved in the future. If a nomination does not have a satisfactory management plan/ system at the time of nomination, a property has less chance to be inscribed in the World Heritage List, although it may be accepted according to a provision of the Operational Guidelines.

Management in the 1972 World Heritage Convention refers to State Parties’ general responsibilities towards cultural and natural heritage. Particularly, each State Party’s duty is to ensure the identification, protection, conservation, presentation and transmission to the future generations (Article 4), as well as to take effective and active measures for the protection, conservation and preservation for the cultural and natural heritage situated in their territory (Article 5).

Even though the Operational Guidelines provide detailed guidance regarding the implementation of the World Heritage Convention, the guidance on management is general, since it has to be applicable in all parts of the world. However, the Guidelines provide a definition of both the objectives of a management system and of what it should contain. Particularly, the purpose of a management system is to ensure the effective protection of the nominated property for present and future generations. Therefore a management system may include:

●       A thorough shared understanding of the property by all stakeholders;

●       A cycle of planning, implementation, monitoring, evaluation and feedback;

●       The monitoring and assessment of the impacts of trends, changes, and of proposed interventions;

●       The involvement of partners and stakeholders;

●       The allocation of necessary resources;

●       Capacity-building; and

●       An accountable, transparent description of how the management system functions.


Inclusion Criteria for Tangible Heritage

The Operational Guidelines describe in detail the nomination processes and define the criteria for inclusion in the World Heritage List. A property is considered to be of Outstanding Universal Value if it meets one or more of the following criteria:


i.                    represent a masterpiece of human creative genius

ii.                  exhibit an important interchange of human values, (…) on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design

iii.                bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared

iv.                 be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history

v.                   be an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement (…) or human interaction with the environment (…)

vi.                 be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs (…)

vii.               contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance

viii.             be outstanding examples representing major stages of earth's history (…)

ix.                 be outstanding examples representing significant on-going ecological and biological processes (…)

x.                   contain the most important and significant natural habitats (…).




The Nomination Process

The Nomination Process for inclusion in the World Heritage List includes four phases:


1.      The States Parties decide which properties to include in their Tentative Lists,

2.      The States Parties decide which properties included in their Tentative Lists will be nominated for inscription on the World Heritage List,

3.      The World Heritage Committee decides whether to inscribe a property on the World Heritage List, after its evaluation by the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) and/or the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

4.      The States Parties manage effectively the inscribed properties to protect their Outstanding Universal Value, according to the World Heritage Convention.


1.      Tentative List


The States Parties that have ratified the 1972 World Heritage Convention are urged to create a Tentative List, an inventory including the properties of natural and/or cultural heritage located in their boundaries that can be considered of Outstanding Universal Value and therefore may be submitted for inscription in the World Heritage List in the next years. This first step is very crucial since the World Heritage Committee does not consider any nomination for inscription on the World Heritage List unless the properties are included on the State Party’s Tentative List. Tentative Lists should be submitted to the World Heritage Center at least one year prior to the submission of any nomination.


2.      Nomination of Properties


State Parties are encouraged to include in the nomination process of cultural and/or natural heritage properties a wide spectrum of stakeholders, namely local communities, governmental, non – governmental as well as private organizations. The Nomination file shall include the following sections, in accordance with the Format for the Nomination of Properties for Inscription on the World Heritage List (Annex No 5, a. Identification of the Property, b. Description of the Property, c. Justification for Inscription, d. State of conservation and factors affecting the property, e. Protection and Management, f. Monitoring, g. Documentation, h. Contact Information of responsible authorities, i. Signature on behalf of the State Party(ies). In many countries there is one authority for finalizing and submitting the nomination file, usually theMinistry of Culture.


3.      Evaluation of cultural/natural properties


When a property is nominated to be inscribed in the World Heritage List it is evaluated, according to the World Heritage Convention, by one or both of the two Advisory Bodies. ICOMOS evaluates the nominations of cultural heritage properties and IUCN the nominations of natural heritage properties. When a mixed property is nominated, the evaluation is carried out by both Advisory Bodies.

Once a year the World Heritage Committee gathers and decides which properties will be inscribed on the World Heritage List.


4.      Management of inscribed properties


States Parties ensure, through the effective management of their World Heritage Properties that the value, authenticity and integrity of the Properties inscribed will be preserved in the future. For this purpose, States Parties submit every six years a Periodic Report to the World Heritage Committee, including an assessment of the application of the World Heritage Convention, as well as updated information regarding the state of preservation and conservation of their World Heritage properties.


2. Intangible Cultural Heritage


As Cultural Heritage may be considered not only monuments and sites but also traditions and living expressions inherited from generation to generation. In 2003, UNESCO adopted during its 32nd General Conference the Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. Through this Convention the international community recognized that it is of utmost importance not only to safeguard the world heritage sites and landscapes, but also to raise awareness about the cultural expressions and about the skills that until then had no legal or programmatic framework to protect them. The Article 16 of the Convention establishes the UNESCO Intergovernmental Committee for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage in order to prepare the implementation of the Convention, to provide guidance on best practices and make recommendations on measures for the safeguarding of the intangible cultural heritage, as well as in order to examine the nominations submitted by State Parties to be inscribed on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.

On the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity are inscribed elements of Intangible Cultural Heritage, with a view to raising awareness on the importance of their safeguarding. According to Article 2 of UNESCO’s Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, as Intangible Cultural Heritage are defined “oral traditions, performing arts, social practices, rituals and festive events, knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe and skills to produce traditional crafts” ( the aforementioned List have been inscribed 470 elements from 117 countries.

4.3. Intellectual Property and relevant legislation

Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind, such as inventions, literary and artistic works, designs and symbols, names and images.

IP is protected in law by, for example, patents, copyright and trademarks, which enable people to earn recognition or financial benefit from what they invent or create.

National and international legislation on Intellectual Property and copyrights


 The main legislative document regarding Intellectual Property is the Berne Convention for the Protection of literary and artistic works ( It was established first in 1886, but it underwent several changes and amendments. The present-day convention was validated in 1979. It deals with the rights of intellectual creators and with particular forms of creativity, concerned primarily with mass communication. It concerns practically all forms and methods of public communication, not only printed publications but also such matters as sound and television broadcasting, films for public broadcasting in cinemas, etc. and even computerized systems for the storage and retrieval of information. The law protects the expression of ideas in words, musical notes, colours, shapes and so on. In a nutshell, it protects the owner of a work against those who “copy”, that is to say those who take and use the form in which the original work was expressed by the author.

The use of copyright notices is optional to claim copyright, because the Berne Convention makes copyright automatic. However, the lack of notice of copyright using these marks may have consequences in terms of reduced damages in an infringement lawsuit – using notices of this form may reduce the likelihood of a defence of "innocent infringement" being successful.

Copyrights and the WWW

It is believed that any kind of information (text, image, music, etc.) disseminated through the web can be copied and reproduced freely by anyone. Yet, this is a great misunderstanding, which may have legal and financial consequences, since the publication of material belonging to another person or entity without its permission is considered plagiarism, which is the theft of its intellectual property.

The Internet (WWW) makes it easier than ever to disseminate cultural products and intellectual creations of any sort. Furthermore, the webpages on their own constitute Intellectual Property of their creators. Therefore,  a complex system of IP protection extends to cover the WWW.

What is protected on the WWW?

➢      the unique underlying design of a Web page and its contents, including links, original text, graphics, audio, video, html, vrml, other unique markup language sequences

➢      list of Web sites compiled by an individual or organization and

➢      all other unique elements of ontology and metadata that make up the original nature of the material.

When creating a Web page, you CAN:

➢      Link to other Web sites. However, you need to cite your source and perhaps ask for permission, especially  if the source site says so.

➢      Use free graphics on your Web page. If the graphics are not advertised as "free" they should not be copied without permission.

➢      Use all other kinds of material (pictures, maps etc) only if they run under the license of Creative Commons (see below).

When creating a Web page, you CANNOT:

➢      Put the contents of another person's or organization's web site on your Web page

➢      Copy and paste information together from various Internet sources to create "your own" document. [You CAN quote or paraphrase limited amounts, if you give credit to the original source and the location of the source. This same principle applies to print sources, of course.]

➢      Incorporate other people's electronic material, such as e-mail, in your own document, without permission.

➢      Forward someone's e-mail to another recipient without permission

➢      Change the context of or edit someone else's digital correspondence in a way which changes the meaning

➢      Copy and paste others' lists of resources on your own web page

➢      Copy and paste logos, icons, and other graphics from other web sites to your web page (unless it is clearly advertised as "freeware." Shareware is not free).  Some organizations are happy to let you use their logos, with permission - it is free advertising. But they want to know who is using it. They might not approve of all sites who want to use their logo.

Creative Commons


Despite the restrictive rules of copyright, it is possible to use photos, videos even texts freely. This is possible if the above-mentioned objects run under Creative Commons.

“Creative Commons is a global non-profit organization that enables sharing and reuse of creativity and knowledge through the provision of free legal tools. Our legal tools help those who want to encourage reuse of their works by offering them for use under generous, standardized terms; those who want to make creative uses of works; and those who want to benefit from this symbiosis.” [From].

Creative Commons offers a core suite of six copyright licenses. All licenses require that users provide attribution (BY) to the creator when the material is used and shared. Some licensors choose the BY license, which requires attribution to the creator as the only condition to reuse of the material. The other five licenses combine BY with one or more of three additional license elements: Non Commercial (NC), which prohibits commercial use of the material; No Derivatives (ND), which prohibits the sharing of adaptations of the material; and Share Alike (SA), which requires adaptations of the material be released under the same license.

There are many databases with photos under CC. In the meantime, many museums have not only published online their exhibits, but also, under certain circumstances (described on their website), they have made good photos of them freely available.


TIP: Despite the existence of Creative Commons, it is definitely recommended to take in consideration national legislation, especially when it comes to pictures of archaeological objects, even if these pictures have been taken privately, published on the Internet and licensed to the CC. The archaeological laws of many countries allow taking pictures of objects in museums or in public places, but only for private use. Their publication is allowed only if permission from the copyright owner (the museum or the appropriate state authority) is given.


4.4. References

TIP: For an exhaustive list of charters, conventions and other legislative and regulatory texts see the section “Conventions, Charters, Laws” in the general bibliography at the end of the handbook.


Council of Europe: Valetta (1992), Council of Europe: European Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage (revised), Valetta, 16/01/92, ETS no 143 (accessible at:

Francioni, F., Lenzerini, F. (2008), The 1972 World Heritage Convention: a commentary, Oxford-NY

Granada Convention: Convention for the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage of Europe, Treaty no 121, (

ICOMOS (1994), The       Nara      Document           on           authenticity, (

ICOMOS  (2010),  Management  plans  and  the  World   Heritage  Convention:  A    bibliography, UNESCO-ICOMOS Documentation Center, May 2010.

Κάτσος, Χ. (2003), “Πολιτιστικό περιβάλλον, πολιτιστική κληρονομιά και ο νέος νόμος 3028/2002: πρώτες σκέψεις και εννοιολογικές προσεγγίσεις”, [Διαδικτυακός τόπος:, τελευταία ανάκτηση 13/9/2016]

Λένος, Ν. (2003), Ελληνική Πολιτιστική Κληρονομιά. Α. Δημόσια Πολιτική και Εθνικές Πρωτοβουλίες Προστασίας και Διαχείρισης στο Πλαίσιο της Διεθνούς Κοινότητας και της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης (Νομοθετικό-Επιχειρησιακό πεδίο). Β. Προτάσεις εφαρμογής και ανασχεδιασμού. Αθήνα, Μεταπτυχιακή διατριβή, ΕΚΠΑ, Αθήνα.

UNESCO, Preparing World Heritage Nominations : 116069.

UNESCO: Intangible (2003), Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, Paris 17 October 2003

UNESCO (2005), Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention, WHC 05/2, (

UNESCO (2015), Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention, WHC 15/01 (


4.5. Useful links

A database with the IP laws from all countries which are member of EU:

UNESCO 2003: UNESCO convention on Intangible Heritage

European University Institute: International Art Heritage Law:

UNESCO and copyright:

The ABC of copyright, (2010)


Creative Commons


Drafting cultural policies is an important issue, not always easy as funds are not always guaranteed for long-term projects; however, a general consensus and specific feasibility studies and management plans can be drafted for a period of at least five years. Cultural policies involve a series of plans and actions aiming at shaping/branding local identities, valorizing cultural resources and linking culture and heritage to economic development of a region. In order for these policies  to  be feasible (let alone successful) a solid  substratum of knowledge of all the above is required at municipal/regional  level. Ideally, this knowledge should be disseminated to all stakeholders involved in cultural and heritage management in order to achieve consensus  and guarantee  implementation in the future.

5.1. Drafting regional “maps” of cultural assets and activities


Mapping makes culture more visible

so that it can be utilised in new ways –

exchanged, linked and further developed.

– Greg Young, Cultural Mapping in the Global World


What is Cultural Mapping?

It is the basic tool for all urban planning strategies, policy makers, cultural advocates and community leaders, to ensure that all the appropriate decisions are made in the management and development of areas and communities. Through cultural mapping all have the opportunity to understand the uniqueness of the identity of a local area. Thus is widely recognized as an effective tool for development and planning.

In international literature cultural mapping is described as a new field of research where methods and tools are combined in order to design a new enriched, informative and useful profile of an area. All the cultural assets and resources are categorized as well as the strengths and weaknesses.(creative, 2010). It’s a multi usage tool ideal for cultural policy makers, sustainable development policies and even for the community itself. (Duxbury, N., Garrett-Petts, W.F.,  MacLennan D., 2015; Unesco 2015,, 2010)


Why Cultural Mapping?

Cultural mapping is a drawing that depicts the cultural resources. During this process there is a unique opportunity to learn the unknown resources and their importance. This drawing points out what are the strengths of an area to build on, what are the problems, where to allocate resources, or which are the weaknesses. Once the drawing is published all community sectors and local stakeholders have a common base to talk about. (creative, 2010)

The main advantages of cultural mapping are:

●       Comprehensive view of cultural resources for all stakeholders; a new definition of local culture may arise while the overall activity of the area is pictured on a map.

●       Locating gaps, overlaps and assessing needs; is there any scarcity or duplicity in a sector? What does this area really need to develop?

●       Increase awareness and participation; previously unknown resources come to light.

●       Successful and creative partnerships, identifying networks.

●       Successful Planning and decision-making; the first stage of cultural planning


But there are also those who reject cultural mapping on the following basis:

●       It is a useless tool since heritage and cultural resources or human capital is already identified by the state.

●       Critical problems or gaps may come to light that will create political problems.

●       It is an effort consuming time, money and human resources.


Before starting a cultural mapping process always have in your mind that perhaps there are other less demanding or more common accepted  ways to go about itsuch as small research in the local library or in the public archives etc.


Fundamental actions for Cultural Mapping

Before starting a cultural mapping process it is crucial to ask yourself these three, very simple questions:


Who?, Why?, How?


1.      Who? 

Who is going to take part in this process? A working team in Cultural Mapping should be supervised by cultural managers but the rest of the members may come from:

1.      Local community

2.      Local administration

3.      Universities

4.      On - line platforms (social media)

☝     Are we ready for this really difficult coexistence?

2.      Why?

What is the final goal and why is it important to map the cultural heritage of one’s area. e.g: sustainable development, local awareness and synergies etc.

3.      How?

Redefining the cultural and human resources, identifying networks and resources for sustainable development. The collection of this data could facilitate cultural mapping.

☝     Once you have decided that cultural mapping suits you then let’s have a look at the following steps and tips.


Steps for a successful Cultural Mapping project


The steps are simple but really effective:

Plan, Design, Implement, Synthesize, Finalize, Publish


Step 1: Plan: set the objectives, working team, budget, resources

Step 2: Design: Set timelines & deadlines for interim reports, decide working methods (interviews, questionnaires, web research etc)

Step 3: Implement: Raise awareness regarding the project (set up website, publicize the project in the local press) and let’s start!

Step 4: Synthesize: collect and analyze all the incoming data.

A cultural map may include the following: 

●       Tangible and Intangible resources

●       Creative industries

●       Cultural heritage

●       Natural heritage

●       Facilities

●       Labour Force

●       Stakeholders (Private & Public & Local community)

●       Community identity (images, stories, narrations etc)


1st attempt to interpret the results and discuss them with the community/working team,

➢   pay attention to the feedback

2nd attempt to create the map

➢   get feedback from different groups (local administration, stakeholders)

Step 5: Finalize: the map is completed

➢   Always double-check the final result with your team members

Step 6: Publish: Present the results in public

➢   Be prepared for comments and necessary changes


For examples from the field of cultural heritage you should also see the following: Limassol Cyprus and the toolkit All Culture is Local : good practice in regional cultural mapping and planning from local government


Tip: Always remember that cultural mapping is a collective work and the data are part of the community’s heritage and culture!

5.2. Branding: Shaping identities for regions and municipalities


As mentioned in chapter 2 the strengthening of strong local identities is an essential asset both for inner social cohesion and for economic growth. The local authorities, who play a pivotal role in social and economic life, are most appropriate for safeguarding and valorizing these identities and setting them in motion in an effort to effectively brand local physiognomy. The regions are attributed the same obligations as the municipalities as they represent, activate and thus manage a larger number of resources pointing at a wider scope of interventions.

Talking about culture and heritage management, the basic principles which lie within the agenda of the regions and municipalities follow the EU policies and related tools and mechanisms for distribution, monitoring and control of public resources.


The primary objectives the municipal and regional authorities should focus on are oriented towards:

●       Establishment of sustainable culture development modes which preserve the attainments and at the same time create conditions for potential prosperity of this sector.

●       Gradual formation of pre-conditions for diversity and quality development in culture supply to respond the needs defined by demand side

●       Initiation of international cultural cooperation through enhancing the possibilities of meeting people, peer education, training and capacity building activities, communication and advertising, campaigning, etc.

●       Fundraising and utilization of transnational experience, best practice exchange and formation of strategic partnerships.

The regions and municipalities are those which can identify, signify, and valorize their natural and cultural potential and use it for development of related sectors while assigning branches such as tourism, service provision, local production.

Furthermore, the cultural management contributes fully to a sustainable future, building links between place, time and character and contributing to distinctiveness at local, regional and national levels. It is a major contributor to quality of life across the region, creating places to work, live and relax. This is also reflected in regeneration, tourism and recreation strategies and policies implemented by the municipalities. Culture and heritage management contributes to social inclusion and becomes a significant part of everyday life, promotes better information, use of technology, and effective and meaningful community involvement.


Modalities explored at local/regional level


1.      Natural heritage

The natural landscape has been appreciated for its aesthetic and natural beauty. It can be managed effectively only if the interaction between the human factor and nature is understood, appreciated, and reflected in policy and delivery. Local authorities and related agents shall ensure that conservation of the natural environments is effectively integrated at all levels.

2.      Marine and Coastal Heritage

Coastal and marine ecosystems support the places’ functioning and provide uncountable economic benefits. The attractive natural resources to be found along waterways and around the coast mean that much past human activity was centred on these places of the landscape through seafaring and other maritime activities, or by living at and using the coast.

3.      Immovable tangible Heritage

The history of the monuments, buildings, streets, districts and residents should be regarded as the core substance of the urban cultural heritage (historic places, towns and cities). Man-made cultural environment and the shaped natural environment reflects the interaction between man and nature: architecture, sculpture and painting, elements or structures of an archaeological nature, inscriptions, cave dwellings and combinations of features, with outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science.

4.      Movable tangible Heritage

“Movable heritage” defines natural or manufactured objects and collections of heritage significance, usually products of human skills with symbolic and/or aesthetic value. Among these, culture-based goods which do not have specific social values but a cultural value that exceeds their mere economic value  and can be stored, individually or in collections, and exhibited in museums, private houses, galleries, archives, libraries, warehouses, etc. (Moreno et al. 2004, Moreno et al. 2005).

5.      Intangible cultural heritage

Intangible cultural heritage is linked to lifestyles, customs and traditions or living expressions inherited and passed on to the next generations. The UNESCO definition mentioned in chapter 3 is comprehensive, yet on a practical level intangible heritage includes oral traditions, music, performing arts, narratives and literature, social practices, rituals, festive events, food and skills related to nutrition, knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe, traditional arts and crafts.

6.      Cultural Landscapes

Cultural landscapes are often the result of one person or group of people acting upon the land. Cultural landscapes include grand estates, farmland, public gardens and parks, college campuses, cemeteries, scenic highways and industrial sites. Both rural and urban, are also important physical evidence of land use, building a record of the changing shape of the settlements. Landscapes exist in relationship to their ecological contexts: as texts and narratives of cultures, they are valuable expressions of regional identity.

7.      Tourism

Cultural management is undoubtedly related to the tourism industry and clearly associated more specifically with cultural tourism tourism. Tangible and intangible heritage as well as artistic production are clearly connected with place and time, providing important incentive for tourism development and branding of a place.


In many cases, intangible heritage is blended with tangible heritage and cultural/natural landscapes in order to create entities on which branding of a region relies: for example mythology is part of the intangible heritage which, if blended with archaeological remains, can create excellent branding material: particularly if it is firmly supported by scientific research, it creates a very solid substratum of veracity which can attract visitors and add a strong element to local identity. Similarly, the living heritage of great personalities, particularly if combined with some material remain (the house they lived in, the monastery they built, their first invention etc) adds considerably to the cultural atmosphere of a region.


Cultural branding is something from which the local communities can learn, be together in a shared sense of belonging and welfare and something from which the local economy benefits. It can be a stimulus to creative new architecture and design, a force for regeneration and a powerful contributor to people’s quality of life. It is within the agenda that will follow the H2020 policies to promote research of the past in order to fuel innovation for the future; local communities will play an important role in this process.



5.3. Assessing stakeholders, adopting management models

Stakeholder analysis is an important process for identifying stakeholder groups, the interests they represent, and their power in supporting or even actively engaging in a set of activities, a project, or a wider local/regional plan for cultural policies. The objective of stakeholder assessment is to determine who should be considered as stakeholders and how should their interests be addressed in the context of local cultural policy planning.

Most cultural and heritage assets have multiple stakeholders, whose opinions must be considered. Stakeholder consideration is recognized as an important part of the sustainable management of cultural assets developed for tourism (ICOMOS 1999).

Some stakeholders, either individuals or groups, can have stronger concerns, or even a sense of ownership, about an asset, especially in smaller areas, where cultural assets can be more intrinsically linked to personal and familial histories. The failure to consider the needs of stakeholders, including even minor ones, can lead to conflicts which will eventually compromise the effectiveness of planned activities and procedures. Stakeholders need to be sure that their concerns are heard; their legitimacy is recognized and addressed already from the outset.

Therefore, assessment of stakeholders during the preparation phase of policy planning is important; but stakeholder analysis can be repeated from time to time to track changes in stakeholder attitudes and engagement, or in the mapping of stakeholders over time.

For a policy, or even for the management of a single asset, to be sustainable, the consultative process needs to be an ongoing procedure, with feedback from stakeholders encouraged at various stages, so that issues emerging along the way can be addressed and resolved (McKercher and du Cross 22012, 180).

Cultural policy planning on a local/regional level is a vast enterprise, encompassing a wide range of economic and professional activities, socio-cultural life and probably also political investment. Therefore, potential stakeholders can belong to many different categories, including professionals in the field of tourism, historical and cultural organizations and NGOs, possibly minority groups, research facilities, as well as trans-local and trans-regional organizations and public bodies. It is important to identify stakeholders with urgent, relevant and legitimate claims and concerns for every aspect of the planed policy, in order for the consultation process to be productive, but also in order to build effective networks for synergies and multiplier effects.

The following tables present a plan of the main considerations in stakeholder analysis with regard to cultural management and cultural issues (from McKercher and du Cross 22012, tab. 11.4):